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ISO制定水资源再利用国际标准,有助于水资源短缺问题的解决

发布时间: 2019-05-05 10:46:23   审校:睿智  

据联合国解决水问题的协调机构——联合国水机制(UN Water)报告,到2030年,水资源短缺将使2400万至7亿人无家可归。世界水日聚焦于实现可持续发展目标(SDG)6,这就意味着到2030年确保所有人都能获得清洁水和卫生设施。是什么阻碍了我们实现这一目标?ISO标准又将如何发挥作用?

尽管地球上70%的表面积由水覆盖,但其中只有一小部分是淡水。可获得的饮用水在全球分布不均,或是受到污染,或是有所争议,这意味着数十亿的人无法每天获得清洁水。当前的现状还意味着,有45亿人仍然缺少安全的卫生服务,这一现象在农村地区尤为突出。

世界水日定于每年的3月22日开展庆祝活动,旨在呼吁公众关注淡水的重要性。今年世界水日的主题是“不让任何一个人掉队”符合《2030年可持续发展议程》的核心承诺——通过可持续发展取得的进步应惠及所有人。该议程是联合国在2030年之前改变世界的路线图,其中的第六个目标(SDG 6)是专门针对水问题提出的。ISO制定了1400多项与水相关的标准,每一项标准代表的都是各领域的最佳实践,包括水质量、水供应、废水和雨水处理系统和基础设施。尤其是,一项有关水资源再利用的新标准能够对水资源短缺产生重大影响。

全球用水量的增长速度超过上世纪人口增长率的两倍多。全球范围内干旱地区的水资源短缺对城市地区造成了巨大压力——世界上大约55%的人口居住在城市(联合国数据)。ISO水再利用技术委员会(ISO/TC 282)通过其城市地区水再利用分技术委员会(SC2)正在努力解决城市中水资源短缺的危机。该委员会制定的新国际标准ISO 20760-1 提供了如何利用再生水以满足城市地区用水需求和缓解其沉重压力的指南。

该技术委员会秘书石川麻矢(Maya Ishikawa)解释道:“ISO/TC 282制定的各项标准为集中化水再利用系统的规划和设计以及城市地区水再利用的应用提供了指南,同时也为评估水再利用系统的风险和性能提供了方法与工具,因此,ISO/TC 282标准将是有效再利用水和帮助各地区应对水资源短缺的关键。”此外,ISO/TC 282也关注灌溉与工业用水的再利用系统。

另一项致力于实现SDG 6的重要标准是有关未铺设下水道区域卫生系统的ISO 30500标准。全球大约有18亿人饮用的水源遭到排泄物的污染,造成了疾病、营养不良、贫困和儿童死亡等不良后果。ISO 30500标准对独立的粪便污泥处理装置的设计和测试提出了基本要求,以帮助世界范围内许多群体解决健康方面的问题。

这两项标准将共同促进经济、社会和环境的可持续发展。

2019年世界水日主题:不让任何一个人掉队。

 

A standard for water reuse brings hope for water scarcity

 

By 2030, water scarcity will have displaced between 24 and 700 million people, according to UN Water, the United Nations coordinating body on water issues. World Water Day is focusing on Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6, which means ensuring access to water and sanitation for all by 2030. What is keeping us from getting there and how can ISO standards make a difference?

Although water covers 70 % of the earth’s surface, only a fraction of it is freshwater. The available drinking water is unevenly distributed across the globe, polluted or disputed, which means billions of people don’t have access to clean water each day. The current situation also means that 4.5 billion people still lack safely managed sanitation services, particularly in rural areas.

Celebrated each year on 22 March, World Water Day puts the spotlight on the importance of freshwater. This year’s edition, “Leaving no one behind”, adapts the central promise of Agenda 2030 that progress achieved through sustainable development should be available to all. The Agenda, which is the United Nations’ roadmap to transform the world by 2030, includes a Sustainable Development Goal specifically dedicated to water – SDG 6. ISO has developed more than 1 400 standards relating to water, each representing best practice in a number of sectors including water quality, water supply, wastewater and stormwater systems, and infrastructure. In particular, a new standard on water reuse could make a significant impact for water scarcity.

Water use has been growing globally at more than twice the rate of population increase in the last century. Water shortage in arid parts of the globe has placed heavy pressure on urban areas, where about 55 % of the world population resides (UN). ISO technical committee ISO/TC 282 on water reuse, through its subcommittee SC 2, Water reuse in urban areas, is working hard to address the water shortage crisis in cities. Its new International Standard ISO 20760-1 offers guidelines on how to make use of reclaimed water in order to satisfy water demands and alleviate heavy pressure on urban areas.

Maya Ishikawa, Secretary of the technical committee, explains: “By providing guidelines for the planning and design of centralized water reuse systems and water reuse applications in urban areas as well as methods and tools to evaluate the risk and performance of water reuse systems, ISO/TC 282 standards will be the key to efficiently reuse water and help regions fight water shortages.” In addition, ISO/TC 282 focuses on water reuse systems for irrigation and industrial uses as well.

Another key standard addressing SDG 6 is ISO 30500 on non-sewered sanitation systems. An estimated 1.8 billion people across the globe are using a source of drinking water that is faecally contaminated, with such adverse consequences as disease, malnutrition, poverty, and child death. By offering basic requirements for the design and testing of stand-alone faecal sludge treatment units, ISO 30500 will help address the health needs of many communities worldwide.

Together these two standards will promote economic, social and environmental sustainability.

World Water Day 2019 theme: Leaving no one behind

 


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