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ISO发布有助于促进健康的清洁炉灶新标准

发布时间: 2018-08-07 10:51:08   审校:睿智  

每年,数百万人的生命受到明火或用木头,木炭和粪便燃烧的简易炉灶所释放的烟雾的不利影响。人们期待已久的关于安全炉灶的系列国际标准刚刚发布,从而提供了帮助。

全世界约有30亿人依靠污染型炉灶和明火来烹饪家庭菜肴。这些方法不仅效率低下,同时,当人暴露在有害烟雾环境中,患上肺癌、肺炎和中风等一系列疾病的风险还会增加,每年导致400万人死亡。

为了解决这个问题,国际标准化组织(ISO)制定了一系列国际标准和相关文件,以实现更清洁、更安全的烹饪解决方案,为新技术和现有技术的开发与发展提供平台。其中包括经实验室测试过的国际标准,行业特定词汇的技术报告和基准实验室

测试测量的技术报告。上述文件中两个刚刚出版,第三个将于今年晚些时候发布。

制定该项标准的技术委员会主席,全球清洁炉灶联盟的标准、技术和燃料部门前总监芮伊•蒋(Ranyee Chiang)表示,这是该行业的积极举措。

“目前我们已取得进展,但这是影响30亿人的全球性问题,我们必须有更远大的目标,”她说。

“这些标准将有助于激励和动员设计师和公司提高炉灶标准,加快推动有利于消费者的新技术市场的发展。”

ISO 19867-1,清洁炉灶和清洁烹饪解决方案 -第1部分:排放和性能,安全性和耐久性的标准测试顺序,是生物质炉灶测试的首项国际标准。ISO / TR 21276,清洁炉灶和清洁烹饪解决方案 - 词汇则是一项新的技术报告,确定了炉灶技术和测试中

的精确术语。该项标准中的术语和定义规定了炉灶微粒和气体空气污染物排放的实验室测量和评估方法。

很快ISO将制定这项标准的的第三部分,这项标准将会基于实验室测试结果,为炉灶自愿性能绩效设定目标。标准的第三部分将在几个月内发布。上述文件将共同提供有用的测试协议和实验室测量程序组合,以测试在受控实验室条件下炉灶的性

能。

这些文件由ISO技术委员会ISO / TC 285负责制定,即清洁炉灶和清洁烹饪解决方案工作组,主要成员为清洁炉灶和燃料行业的世界领先专家,他们具有测试、设计、业务和政策方面的丰富专业知识。

该委员会由美国国家标准协会(ANSI)和肯尼亚标准局(KEBS)共同领导,它们分别是ISO在美国和肯尼亚的成员组织,其他与清洁炉灶使用密切相关的发展中国家也积极参与了制定工作。

ISO / TR 21276:2018和ISO 19867-1:2018可从您所在国家的ISO成员组织或ISO商店获得。

Improving health with new standards for cleaner cookstoves

Each year, millions of lives are adversely affected by smoke released from cooking on open fires or simple stoves fuelled by wood, charcoal and dung. The much-awaited series of international guidelines for safer cookstoves, just published, aims to help.

Some three billion people around the world rely on polluting stoves and open fires to cook the family meals. Not only are these methods inefficient, the harmful smoke exposure can increase the risk of contracting a range of diseases such as lung cancer, pneumonia and stroke, contributing to nearly four million deaths a year1).

To help address the problem, ISO has developed a series of International Standards and related documents for cleaner, safer cooking solutions that will provide a platform for new and existing technologies to develop and grow. These include an International Standard on laboratory testing, a technical report on sector-specific vocabulary and a technical report for benchmarking lab testing measurements. Two of them have just been published, with the third due to be released later this year.

Ranyee Chiang, Chair of the committee that developed the standards and former Director of Standards, Technology and Fuels at the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, said this is a positive step for the industry.

“Progress has been made, but with a global issue affecting three billion people, we must have ambitious goals,” she said.

“These standards will help to motivate and mobilize designers and companies to raise the standards of cookstoves and accelerate the market for new technologies that benefit consumers.”

ISO 19867-1, Clean cookstoves and clean cooking solutions – Harmonized laboratory test protocols – Part 1: Standard test sequence for emissions and performance, safety and durability, is the first ever International Standard for the testing of biomass cookstoves. Based on terms and definitions from ISO/TR 21276, Clean cookstoves and clean cooking solutions – Vocabulary, a new technical report establishing precise terminology for cookstove technology and testing, it specifies laboratory measurement and evaluation methods for the particulate and gaseous air pollutant emissions of cookstoves.

It will soon be joined by a Part 3 setting voluntary performance targets for cookstoves based on laboratory testing, which is due to be published in the coming months. Together, they will provide a useful portfolio of test protocols and laboratory measurement procedures to test the performance of cookstoves under controlled laboratory conditions.

The documents were developed by ISO technical committee ISO/TC 285, Clean cookstoves and clean cooking solutions, comprised of some of the world’s leading specialists from the clean cookstoves and fuels sector, with special expertise on testing, design, business and policy.

The committee is jointly led by ANSI, ISO’s member for the US, and KEBS, ISO’s member for Kenya, with a strong involvement from other developing countries for whom clean cookstoves are most relevant.

ISO/TR 21276:2018 and ISO 19867-1:2018 are available from your national ISO member or through the ISO Store.


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