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ISO发布更为环保的机床新标准

发布时间: 2018-07-23 10:20:27   浏览次数:

每当提及能源效率这个话题时,我们并不会马上想到节能机床。然而机床包含发动机和一些辅助元件,它们在机床运行过程中的能耗也不尽相同。幸运的是,ISO新出台的一系列标准能够帮助测量出其能耗,并提高机器的设计及其性能。

机床是一种极其复杂,由电力驱动,用来生产备用零件或半成品的工业设备。机床包括了一系列切割并塑形金属、木头和塑料及其零件的工具,在汽车、通用机械、精密工程、医疗、交通、航天和模具等行业中广泛使用。

显而易见,机床使用了不同种类的能源,例如:电能、压缩空气、水能、蕴藏在冷却和润滑系统中的能源等。因此,机床的能源需求被视为投资的关键数据,但是它不是单独的个体。机床的性能是多维度的,包括其经济价值、技术规范和运行要

求,这些都受到特定应用的影响。这就解释了为什么计算这些产品的生态足迹一直以来都是一个难题。同时,随着自然资源日渐匮乏,更需要定义机床的环境性能标准,而这些标准的使用也需要进行细分。

最近,ISO发布了新的机床环境评估国际标准的两个部分,这两个部分的标准分析了机床的不同功能,以找出大量现存机床类型中的共性。

ISO 14955-1,机床—机床的环境评估—第1部分:节能机床的设计方法,解决的是机床使用寿命内能源效率的问题。它能够甄别出机床使用期间产生能源需求的主要功能和元件。通过将这些元件与以往的元件或顶尖的元件相比较,以便将来进行

改进。

ISO 14955-2, 机床—机床的环境评估—第2部分:测量供给机床及其零件能源的方法,通过提供行之有效的方法测量供给机床的能源,从而根据ISO 14955-1标准为机床的节能设计方法论提供支持。

制定这项标准的ISO/TC 39/WG 12 召集人Ralf Reines解释道, “据我所知,这是唯一一项针对机床制定的标准。它所涉及的主题适用于每一种机床,尽管机床的元件种类十分繁多,例如,不同的加工技术(如铣削、车削、磨削、激光加工、成

型),材料加工(金属、木材、塑料)以及尺寸(生产零件所用齿轮的尺寸或加工直径10米的风车所用齿轮的尺寸)。该标准重点是使各能源使用者在不降低技术水准的前提下实现更高的环境绩效。

德国机床制造商协会所发布的2016年市场报告研究显示,全球机床总产量价值达到677亿欧元。机械和生产系统对能源效率的要求越来越高,这对机械设计师来说是一个相对较新的挑战。现在,随着新的ISO 14955标准的出台,能效很可能会成为

现代机床中越来越重要的质量属性。

ISO 14955-1和ISO 14955-2两项标准是由ISO / TC 39机床技术委员会制定,其秘书处由SNV(ISO的瑞士成员)负责。您可以从您国家的ISO成员处或ISO商店购买。

 

New ISO standards for greener machine tools

When the topic of energy efficiency comes up, energy-efficient machine tools don’t immediately spring to mind. Yet machine tools contain motors and auxiliary components whose energy demand varies widely during machining operations. Happily, a new series of ISO standards can help measure energy supplied and improve machine design and performance.

Machine tools are complex power-driven industrial devices employed to manufacture ready-for-use parts or semi-finished products. Encompassing a whole array of tools for cutting and forming metal, wood and plastics, and all their accessories, machine tools are used by companies in a variety of sectors like the automotive industry, general machinery, precision engineering, the medical sector, transport, aerospace, and dies and mould.
Machine tools obviously use different forms of energy, such as electrical energy, compressed air, hydraulic energy, energy hidden in the cooling and lubrication system, etc. Therefore, the energy demand of a machine tool is considered as key data for investment, but does not stand alone. The performance of a machine tool is multidimensional regarding its economic value, its technical specification and its operating requirements, which are influenced by the specific application. Hence why the ecological footprint is a common challenge for all these products and, as natural resources become scarce, environmental performance criteria for machine tools need to be defined and the use of these criteria specified.
ISO has recently published the first two parts of a new International Standard for the environmental evaluation of machine tools, which proposes to analyse machine tools with regard to the delivered functions in order to highlight the commonalities in the huge variety of existing machine tool types.
ISO 14955-1, Machine tools – Environmental evaluation of machine tools – Part 1: Design methodology for energy-efficient machine tools, addresses the energy efficiency of machine tools during their working life. It identifies the main functions and machine tool components that are responsible for energy demand during the use phase. These components are then compared with previous components or with the state-of-the-art for their future improvement.
ISO 14955-2, Machine tools – Environmental evaluation of machine tools – Part 2: Methods for measuring energy supplied to machine tools and machine tool components, supports the energy-saving design methodology according to ISO 14955-1 by providing practical methods for measuring the energy supplied to machine tools.
Ralf Reines, Convenor of ISO/TC 39/WG 12 that developed the standards, explains: “This is, to my knowledge, the only standard concerning this topic that is tailored for machine tools. It covers the topic in a way that it can be applied to each and every machine tool, despite the fact that the product group of machine tools is extremely diverse, e.g. different technologies (such as milling, turning, grinding, laser processing, forming), processing of material (metal, wood, plastics), sizes (to produce parts the size of a tooth or to process gears for windmills of 10 m in diameter). The standard focuses on the relevant energy users to achieve a higher environmental performance without loosing in technical possibilities.”
According to the study Market Report 2016 by the German Machine Tool Builders’ Association, the world production of machine tools represents EUR 67.7 billion. The increasing demand for machinery and production systems to be more energy-efficient is a relatively new challenge for machine designers. Now, with the new ISO 14955 series, energy efficiency is likely to become an increasingly important quality attribute of modern machine tools.
ISO 14955-1 and ISO 14955-2 were developed by ISO technical committee ISO/TC 39,Machine tools, whose secretariat is held by SNV, ISO’s member for Switzerland. They can be purchased from your national ISO member or through the ISO Store.
 

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