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ISO 30500在无污水道的地区促进全球健康

发布时间: 2018-01-31 10:38:53   审校:睿智  

世界上还存在许多地方,农村或城市人口都不得不使用未与污水道连通的厕所。大多数情况下,这些城市规划者都正在努力通过投资基础设施来解决这个问题。但是对于这数百万人来说,目前面临主要问题的是缺乏排污系统,而水能传播疾病,对人类健康构成重大威胁,因

此,解决这个问题至关重要。这就是即将出台的国际标准草案的背景。

ISO 30500 无污水道卫生系统——预制综合处理装置——设计和测试一般安全和性能要求的出台是为预制综合处理装置的无污水道卫生系统的产品的设计和性能测试提供一般安全和性能要求。它将应用于所有未接入污水道的综合卫生系统1)

ISO 30500涵盖的综合系统中,从前端收集、传送、充分处理都涵括在无污水管卫生系统内,以便安全地再利用或处理所产生的固体、液体和气体。这个国际标准与同类标准的关键区别在于,其后端未连接到污水管网系统。

ISO 30500将涵盖无污水道卫生系统的安全性、功能性、可用性、可靠性和可维护性标准,以及此系统与环境保护目标的相容性。它不包括选择、安装、操作和维修程序的指导,也不包括无污水道卫生系统的管理,也不能替代制造商的说明书和用户手册。

无污水道卫生系统可用于世界各地的不同地方,包括没有排污系统的城市和农村社区,以及寻求可持续卫生解决方案的城市社区。不仅适用于包括难民营在内的临时或永久性居住所,也同样适用于偏远地区,供公众或私人使用。

一、改善公众健康只是开始

众所周知,人类的排泄物中含有大量的细菌,同时也是细菌、病毒、真菌、幼虫和其他病原体的完美栖息地。所以需要妥善处理好人类的排泄物,避免引发疾病风险。而符合ISO 30500要求的卫生系统,其输出物不会含有这些病原体。因此,该标准将有助于保护个人、社区和饮用水等资源免受污染,避免爆发潜在致命疾病。

此外,还可开发并促进经济、社会和环境可持续的独立式无污水道卫生系统。这可以通过资源消耗最小化(特别是用水)和依靠系统生产有用的副产品(如固态养分、液态养分、再生水、合成燃料的物质、其他可再用的输出物)两种途径来实现。

二、制造商获益匪浅

一般来说,国际标准是一套能降低成本的战略工具,通常通过最小化浪费、减少错误,提高生产力、促进自由和公平的全球贸易等方法实现。ISO 30500将向非污水道卫生系统制造商、政府、监管机构和最终用户保证,他们使用的无污水道设施质量上乘,安全可靠。

随着国际标准ISO 30500的出台,无污水道卫生系统的制造商将深深受惠于这套标准广泛且良好的效益。首先是经过验证且得到行业专家认可的准则,能大大节省时间和资源。产品的基本要素早已经标准确定,因此制造商有更多的时间来开发新功能,使产品能在市场上脱颖而出。

为制造商们营造一个公平的竞争环境,有着双重好处,即在全行业认可的可靠技术基础上让消费者放心,同时激发制造商们进行竞争性创新。而且,国际标准是跨境贸易的重要推动者,因为它们提供了一个国际公认的兼容性和一致性并存的体系,同时也为客户提供ISO认证的保证。因为ISO在世界范围内一直是值得信赖的品牌。

在一个可能因国家甚至地方政府的法规不同而有着巨大差异的行业中,制造商可以更加安心地创新和研发卫生系统。他们可以向公众、用户、客户推广这套系统是通过ISO 30500认证的。 

三、更好的用户保护政策

新标准还可以为国家或地方监管无污水道卫生系统打下坚实的基础。因为,与所有ISO标准一样,ISO 30500代表了最佳实践,反映了来自世界各地的监管机构、制造商和用户的共识。这使得在制定法规时,它能作为一项有用的资源,并且监管机构能够受益于专家的综合意见,

而无需直接呼叫专家,监管机构和政府能够获取并利用不断更新的信息和经验来源。

不过,最大受益者是在无污水道区域使用厕所的人。该标准提及的要求将推动创新,这意味着在尚未覆盖管道和电力等基础设施的地区,将会有设备更完善的厕所。在家庭和社区中,使用符合标准的厕所的人们可以确信他们的无污水道卫生系统是可靠、安全、卫生、无异味

的,甚至可生产供再次利用的副产品。这是一个多赢局面!

四、由专家制定

来自全球31个国家的专家早已就标准达成共识,他们代表着广泛的利益相关者,如行业、政府、学术界和非政府组织。ISO 30500草案由ISO/PC305(无污水道卫生系统项目委员会)编写,同时为标准制定作出贡献的还有两个联络组织,分别是非洲水协会(AfWA)和厕所委员

会联盟(TBC)。

ISO 30500预计将于2018年正式出台。 

 

ISO 30500 to boost global health in places without sewers

In many places around the world, rural and urban populations have to use toilets that aren’t connected to mains sewers. In many cases, city planners are working hard to address this by investing in infrastructures. But for millions of people, non-sewered systems are the only option and with waterborne diseases posing major risks to human health, it’s important to get it right. That’s where an upcoming Draft International Standard comes in.

ISO 30500, Non-sewered sanitation systems – Prefabricated integrated treatment units – General safety and performance requirements for design and testing, seeks to provide general safety and performance requirements for the product design and performance testing of non-sewered sanitation systems for prefabricated integrated treatment units. It will apply to any integrated sanitation system1) that is not attached to a sewer. 

In an integrated system like the ones covered by ISO 30500, the frontend collects, conveys and fully treats the specific input within the non-sewered sanitation system, to allow for safe reuse or disposal of the generated solid, liquid and gaseous output. The crucial distinction of this International Standard is that the backend is not connected to a networked sewer system. 

ISO 30500 will contain criteria for the safety, functionality, usability, reliability and maintainability of non-sewered sanitation systems, as well as the system’s compatibility with environmental protection goals. It excludes guidelines for selection, installation, operation and maintenance procedures, or management of non-sewered sanitation systems, and neither incorporates nor substitutes for manufacturers’ instructions and user manuals. 

Non-sewered sanitation systems can be used in a number of different places around the world. These include urban and rural communities without access to sewer systems and urban communities pursuing sustainable sanitation solutions. They are suitable for use in temporary or permanent settlements, including refugee camps, and are equally suited to both public or private use in isolated locations.

Improving public health is just the beginning

It’s a straightforward fact that human waste contains numerous germs. As the perfect habitat for bacteria, viruses, fungi, worms and other pathogens, human waste needs to be treated carefully to avoid risks to health. The outputs of sanitation systems that meet ISO 30500’s requirements will be free of these pathogens; thus the standard will help protect individuals, communities and resources such as drinking water from pollution and outbreaks of potentially lethal diseases. 

It additionally enables the development of stand-alone non-sewered sanitation systems that promote economic, social and environmental sustainability. This can be achieved by minimizing resource consumption (particularly water use) and enabling the production of useful by-products, such as liquid and solid nutrients, water for reuse, material for the generation of fuel and other reusable outputs, depending on the system. 

Benefits for manufacturers 

In general, International Standards are strategic tools that reduce costs by minimizing waste and errors, increasing productivity and facilitating free and fair global trade. ISO 30500 will give assurance to manufacturers of non-sewered sanitation systems, governments, regulators and end users that the non-sewered facilities they use are safe, reliable and of good quality. 

With the publication of ISO 30500, manufacturers of non-sewered sanitation systems gain from the wide range of well-established benefits that International Standards bring. First among these is the time and resource savings that go with following a tried-and-tested formula agreed to by industry experts. Once the fundamentals have been taken care of, it leaves more time for further development of the features that really make a product stand out in the marketplace. 

Creating a level playing field among manufacturers has the twofold advantage of reassuring consumers and stimulating competitive innovations on a technically solid, industry-wide base. At the same time, International Standards are a great facilitator of cross-border trade, as they provide an internationally recognized system that favours compatibility and consistency while giving customers the reassurance of the ISO name. That same recognition is also a help when it comes to marketing, since the ISO brand is trusted the world over.

In a sector where regulations may vary significantly by country, or even municipality, manufacturers can feel more secure with their innovation, research and development in sanitation systems. If they so choose, they can promote their systems towards the public, users and clients as being ISO 30500 certified. 

Better policy for user protection

The new standard can also provide a sound basis for the development of national or local regulation for non-sewered systems. That’s because, in common with all ISO standards, ISO 30500 represents best practices and reflects the consensus of regulators, manufacturers and users from across the world. That makes International Standards a useful resource when developing regulations, and gives regulators the benefit of the consolidated opinion of experts without having to call on their services directly. It will enable regulators and government to tap into a constantly updated source of information and experiences. 

And more than anyone else, it’s toilet users in non-sewered areas who are going to experience the widest benefits. The requirements of the standard will drive innovation, meaning better toilets will be available in areas where infrastructure such as plumbing and electricity are not feasible. In homes and communities, users of toilets that conform to the standard can be sure their non-sewered sanitation systems will be reliable, safe, hygienic, odour-free, and may even produce by-products that can be reused by the community. When this happens, everyone wins!

Developed by experts

Experts from 31 countries worldwide representing a broad range of stakeholder categories, such as industry, government, academia and non-governmental organizations, have come together to form consensus on the standard. The draft of ISO 30500 was prepared by ISO/PC 305, the project committee on non-sewered sanitation systems, with two liaison organizations, the African Water Association (AfWA) and the Toilet Board Coalition (TBC), also contributing to the standard’s development. 

ISO 30500 is expected to be published in 2018.


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