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采用ISO标准设计更好的工作场所

发布时间: 2017-07-05 09:26:39   审校:睿智   浏览次数:
来源:https://www.iso.org/news/Ref2177.html  

从全球来看,抑郁和精神健康问题正在增加。抑郁症影响全球3亿不同年龄的人口,给当事人和其家庭带来了巨大的痛苦,同时也给社会带来了巨大的经济损失。今年4月7日的世界卫生日强调了抑郁症的后果和解决方案。

世界卫生组织每年举办世界卫生日这一活动。世界卫生组织的数据显示,心理健康问题和与压力相关的疾病是一个很大的健康问题,也是导致过早死亡的最主要原因。由于社会、心理和生理因素的复杂相互作用,抑郁症往往是由不良生活事件如失业、丧亲或心理创伤等引发的。在工作、学校和家庭中都很糟糕的人,受到以上事件的影响便会感到虚弱。

导致抑郁的根本原因与生活和工作条件有关。例如,工作环境是健康与否的一个强有力的决定因素,对员工的情绪有很大的影响。在今天经济全球化的背景下,职业环境带来了越来越多的精神压力,这可能导致缺乏工作满足感、工作表现下降、健康状况不佳和抑郁等等。

一、营造更愉悦的工作环境

为了帮助企业和专家设计增强员工满意度和提升福利的工作场所,ISO已经制定了几项国际标准以解决在工作系统设计中人体工程学的问题。

例如ISO 6385,它是工作系统设计方面的人体工程学原理,能提供核心人体工程学原则来提高、(再)设计和改善工作环境,使工作环境更安全、更舒适、更富有成效。它涵盖了各种各样的职业如机器操作员、流水线工人、汽车/卡车司机、机场人员、医护人员、教学人员以及办公室人员和笔记本电脑的流动雇员。

另一个例子,ISO 10075人体工程学原则与心理负荷相关。它提供的系统设计指南专门旨在防止心理负荷过重。心理压力可能由许多不同的相互作用的因素导致,包括任务要求、工作的身体条件、社会和公司因素或社会因素等等。ISO 10075系列标准的理念是帮助设计防止精神紧张的系统。

另一项标准是ISO 27500,它描述了使一个公司以人为本的价值观和信仰,公司能取得的重大商业利益,并阐述了不以人为本的公司所面临的风险。它为执行董事会成员实施政策达到这一目的提供建议。它涵盖了执行董事成员认可的高水平的以人为本原则,目的是为了提高绩效,使公司和个人风险最小化,公司福利最大化,同时增强公司与客户的关系。

人体工程学基本原理是由ISO / TC 159技术委员会,工效学分第1技术委员会制定的。其秘书处是由德国标准标准协会(DIN)承担。DIN是ISO的德国成员。这些标准旨在帮助设计师应用最新的知识,使工作系统和设备更加以人为本,使工作场所更加高效。

实施强有力的职业卫生和安全管理体系是公司减少事故和不良健康状况的另一种方式。ISO还制定了一种职业健康和安全(OH&S)管理体系标准,即ISO 45001,该项标准是为了使公司能够管理其OH&S,并改进其OH&S绩效。OH&S管理体系的实施是一个公司的战略决策,可以用它来支持其可持续发展计划,确保人们更安全、更健康,同时增强公司盈利能力。

 

A better designed workplace with ISO standards

Depression and mental health conditions are on the rise globally. Affecting more than 300 million people of all ages across the world, depression causes immense suffering to people and their families, as well as placing a great economic cost on society. Its consequences and solutions are highlighted in this year’s World Health Day on 7 April.

Mental health problems and stress-related disorders are a major health concern and the biggest overall cause of early death, according to the World Health Organization, which organizes World Health Day each year. Resulting from a complex interaction of social, psychological and biological factors, depression is often triggered by adverse life events such as unemployment, bereavement or psychological trauma. It can be debilitating for the affected person, who functions poorly at work, at school and in the family.

Some of the root causes of depression are related to living and working conditions. For example, the working environment is a powerful determinant of health and has a significant impact on the employee’s mood. In today’s context of economic globalization, the occupational environment is delivering increasing mental stress, which can lead to job dissatisfaction, reduced work performance, ill health and depression.

Towards a happier workplace

To help businesses and experts design workplaces that encourage employee satisfaction and well-being, ISO has developed several International Standards addressing the issues of ergonomics in the design of work systems.

For example, ISO 6385, Ergonomic principles in the design of work systems, provides core ergonomic principles to improve, (re)design and modify working situations to make the workplace safer, more comfortable and more productive. It covers a wide variety of occupations such as machine operators, assembly line workers, car/lorry drivers, airport personnel, healthcare professionals, teaching staff as well as office workers and mobile workers on laptops.

Another example, ISO 10075, Ergonomic principles related to mental workload, provides system design guidelines specifically intended to prevent mental overload. Mental stress can result from many different and interacting factors including the requirements of the task, the physical conditions of the job, social and organizational factors or societal factors. The idea behind the ISO 10075 series of standards is to help design systems that prevent mental strain.

Another standard, ISO 27500, describes the values and beliefs that make an organization human-centred, the significant business benefits that can be achieved, and explains the risks for the organization of not being human-centred. It provides recommendations for the policies that executive board members need to implement to achieve this. It sets out high-level human-centred principles for executive board members to endorse in order to optimize performance, minimize risks to organizations and individuals, maximize well-being in their organization, and enhance their relationships with the customers.

Developed by technical committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, subcommittee 1, General ergonomics principles, whose secretariat is held by DIN, the ISO member for Germany, these standards are destined to help designers apply the latest knowledge in work systems and work equipment in a human-centred way, for a more productive workplace.

Implementing a strong occupational health and safety management system is also another way organizations reduce accidents and ill health. ISO is also developing an occupational health and safety (OH&S) management system standard, ISO 45001, which is intended to enable organizations to manage their OH&S risks and improve their OH&S performance. The implementation of an OH&S management system is a strategic decision for an organization that can be used to support its sustainability initiatives, ensuring people are safer and healthier and increase profitability at the same time.

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