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IEC针对提高加工厂的安全性及可靠性制定标准

发布时间: 2017-11-20 16:12:51   作者:艾哈迈德•侯斯尼、莫兰德•法超特   审校:睿智   浏览次数:
来源:http://iecetech.org/issue/2017-06/Improving-safety-and-reliability-in-process-industry-plants  

艾哈迈德·斯尼,理学硕士,功能安全高级工程师,执业功能安全专家及执业防火专家。他刚刚出版了一本关于加工厂流程安全及可靠性项目的书。e-tech在此发布该书的主要成果总结

1、艾哈迈德·侯斯尼刚刚出版了一本关于加工厂流程安全及可靠性项目的书。

下列内容为他的工作及个人经历:

侯斯尼于2015年向e-tech投稿,名为《资产完整性及功能安全》。这篇文章吸取了2015年2月挪威国家石油公司北海海上平台发生的凝析油泄漏事件的经验。

侯斯尼在e-tech上分享了他本人著作里的一些发现。这本书着重于化工厂(包括化工、石化、石油、天然气、发电、采矿及核电站)过程安全及可靠项目。

侯斯尼说,该项目的发展面临着很多挑战。

这些挑战导致了这些项目中发生的常见缺陷甚至于错误。此外,很多工程、操作方法和维修标准及准则的要求(如IEC 61511功能安全—过程工业部门安全仪表系统,美国石油协会(API)14C,海上生产平台基本海面安全系统的分析、设计、安装及测试推荐方法等)互相之间

并不一致,导致不同项目的衡量标准完全不同。

IEC 61511及IEC 61513:2011关于核电站—安全相关的仪表及控制系统—总体要求中相对新颖的方法并未介绍新的调查结果,而是编纂了基于风险的设计方法。这些方法的基本理念已得到公认,但一些法规提出了要求,侯斯尼说道。

这项标准针对关于如何以系统及一致地设计及维修的方法的术语和指南。新术语介绍了诸如“功能安全”,而IEC 61511中不但包含安全仪表系统,也包含其他保护层(例如泄压阀)。

2、IEC 61511和IEC 61513是解决大多数安全问题的答案

IEC 61511和IEC 61513中制定的标准化过程适用于所有安全问题吗?侯斯尼说,该标准化适用于绝大多数安全防护栏,尤其是为了防火、防爆、易燃物质及有毒物质的疏散等而出现的那些安全问题。它的优点是显著提升安全性能,并节省约10%的资金投入及30%的运营费

用。真正的问题是:如何完全一体化及连续地设计及运行工厂?

过程安全、可靠项目及发现的挑战

侯斯尼在《加工厂流程安全及可靠性项目发展》中探讨了关于加工厂(包括化工、石化、石油、天然气、发电、采矿及核电站)过程安全及可靠项目的问题。此外,书中也探讨了迄今为止类似工厂项目存在的普遍缺陷及挑战。书中还推荐了建设这些项目的更佳方法以及基本原

理。书中也提供了对于资金投入及其与安全可靠性能的平衡的见解。侯斯尼开始写作本书时,油价显著下跌,这个现象在石油行业也发生过不止一次了。

正如IEC 61511和IEC 61513中的规范过程所示,从工厂设计到工厂停用的整个过程都是互相连接的。

因此,所有的行为活动都应前后连接且保持连续,不应有任何落单或不连续行为。

这要求了解构重组工程组,以达到连贯、安全及节省资金投入的目的。这也要求了安全可靠性研究的一致性,包括定量风险分析(QRA)、危险与可操作性分析(Hazop)、后果模拟、保护层分析(LOPA)、安全完整性等级(SIL)评估、危险区域分级、逃逸性排放、阀门密

封性及安全措施设计,如警报器、触发器、泄放阀、防护墙及防护堤等,以及监视和维修项目。

侯斯尼的书全面回顾了以前及近期发表的文章著作,并就一个工厂设计维护过程中的典型弱点进行了案例分析。紧接着阐述了在设计阶段、施工阶段、运行阶段直至工厂停用的过程中如何重组并配置资源。

书中也探讨了一些相似的设计案例,并就最安全节约的设计方法给出了建议。

本书中包含的所有信息应得到工程师及与加工厂的设计、运行及管理相关专家的关注。值得一提的是,本书目前已经入围化学工程师协会全球奖决赛。

参考书目:艾哈迈德·侯斯尼(2017),《加工厂流程安全及可靠性项目发展》

艾哈迈德·侯斯尼,理学硕士,功能安全高级工程师,执业功能安全专家(CFSE/SCSP,持有 TÜV SÜD/CFSE Board CFSP证书)、国家防火协会/执业防火专家(NFPA/CFPS)。

 

Improving safety and reliability in process industry plants

Development of safety and reliability programmes for crucial plants

 

Ahmad Hosni, MSc, a Functional Safety Senior Engineer, Certified Functional Safety Expert/Professional and Certified Fire Protection Specialist, has just published a book on process safety and reliability programmes for process industry plants. e-tech publishes here a summary of the main findings of his book. 

Ahmad Hosni recently published a book on process safety and reliability programmes for process industry plants

Following up on previous work and experience

Hosni, contributed an article for e-tech on Asset integrity and functional safety in 2015. The article drew lessons from the February 2015 condensate leak incident on the Gudrun North Sea offshore platform operated by Norway's Statoil company.

Hosni shared with e-tech some of the findings of the book he recently published. This book focuses on process safety and reliability programme for the process industry plants (chemical, petrochemical, oil, gas, power generation, mining and nuclear power plants).

Developing such a programme faces a lot of challenges, Hosni says.

This leads to the spread of common imperfections and even mistakes in such programmes. In addition, the availability of too many engineering, operation and maintenance Standards and practices (like IEC 61511, Functional safety – Safety instrumented systems for the process industry sector, American Petroleum Institute (API) 14C, Recommended Practice for Analysis, Design, Installation, and Testing of Basic Surface Safety Systems for Offshore Production Platforms, etc.) that were not developed to be aligned, contributed to inconsistency in many of the programmes developed.

The relatively new approach in IEC 61511 and in IEC 61513:2011, Nuclear power plants – Instrumentation and control important to safety – General requirements for systems, did not introduce new findings but rather organized the risk-based design approach whose basics have already been known from before and required by some regulations, Hosni says.

The Standards introduced new terms and guidance on how to achieve the design and perform maintenance in a systematic and consistent way. The new terms introduced are like “functional safety”, which, in IEC 61511 does not only include safety-instrumented systems but also other protection layers (like pressure relief valves).

IEC 61511 and IEC 61513 a possible answer for most safety barriers

Can the standardization developed in IEC 61511 and IEC 61513 be applied to all safety barriers? The answer, says Hosni, is yes for most barriers especially those that aim at preventing fire, explosion, flammable and toxic releases. The benefit of this is significant improvement in safety and cost savings estimated at some 10% of capital expenditure and 30% of operational expenditure per plant. The real question is: How to design and operate the plant that way in a fully-integrated and consistent manner?

Process safety, reliability programmes, and challenges explored

Hosni’s book, “Development of a process safety and reliability program for the process industry plants” discusses the elements of process safety and reliability programmes for the process industry plants (chemical, petrochemical, oil, gas, power generation, mining and nuclear power plants). Moreover, it discusses the common imperfections and challenges that such programmes have in plants built until now. Furthermore, it recommends better practices to be followed in developing these programmes and each element they include. It also provides insights on cost and its balance with safety and reliability especially since, when Hosni started writing this book, oil prices dropped significantly, something that happened also more than once over the history of the oil industry.

As described in the standardization process presented in IEC 61511 and IEC 61513, plant design until decommissioning is an interlinked process.

Therefore, all activities need to be connected together and consistent and this while avoiding redundancy and inconsistencies.

This implies restructuring engineering teams to achieve consistency, safety and save cost. It also implies aligning safety and reliability studies like quantitative risk analysis (QRA), hazard and operability study (Hazop), consequence modelling, layer of protection analysis (LOPA), safety integrity level (SIL) assessment, hazardous area classification, fugitive emissions, valve tightness and the design of safeguards like alarms, trips, relief valves, protective barriers and dikes, etc. and the inspection and maintenance programmes.

Hosni’s book gives a comprehensive review of works published previously and more recently, followed by an analysis of a case study showing the typical weakness points common in many plants design and maintenance. It further explains how to carry out the restructuring and configuration within the design and engineering phase, as well as the operational phase of the plant till its decommissioning.

Several common design cases are also discussed with recommendations on how to organize the design in the safest and most cost-effective manner.

All the information contained in this book should be of interest to engineers and other experts involved in the design, operation and management of process industry plants. It is also worth noting that the book is now an IChemE Global Award Finalist

Reference: Ahmad Hosni (2017), Development of a process safety and reliability program for the process industry plants

*Ahmad Hosni, MSc, is a Functional Safety Senior Engineer (FS Eng), Certified Functional Safety Expert/Professional (CFSE/CFSP) with TÜV SÜD/CFSE Board CFSP, TÜV Rheinland, as well as a National Fire Protection Association/Certified Fire Protection Specialist (NFPA/CFPS)

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