CEN 308技术委员会（CEN/TC 308）专门针对污泥的农业应用提出了技术报告：CEN/TR 13097:2010
Sludge, an added-value for a cleaner agriculture
European Standards help Europe to achieve its objectives of a circular economy by contributing to recycling and sustainability at large. Agriculture is one of the biggest European economic sector, but is still the origin of different sources of pollution. Hence, European standardization is essential for agriculture in defining tools and methods that are environmental-friendly in specific agricultural domains, such as the use of sludge, mainly sewage sludge.
Sewage sludge is the organic by-product of urban wastewater treatment, which has a lot of potential as a source of nutrients to be spread on land as a fertiliser or an organic soil improver. The sludge tends to concentrate heavy metals, poorly biodegradable trace of organic compounds, of pharmaceutical and personal care products, as well as of potentially pathogenic organisms that are present in waste waters. Therefore, it has to be sufficiently treated and carefully used before it can be applied on farmland to prevent any harmful effect on the environment and on human health. In Europe, the European Union Sewage Sludge Directive (86/278/EEC) encourages the use of sewage sludge in agriculture and regulates its use in such a way as to prevent harmful effects.
Not all European Countries use sewage sludge in agriculture. However, the production of sewage sludge in Europe is generally increasing under the impulse of European Union Directives such as the ‘Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive’ and the ‘Sewage Sludge Directive’ on the protection of the environment, and in particular of the soil, when sewage sludge is used in agriculture. It is expected to approach 13 million tons of production in 2020.
The use of sewage sludge in agriculture in Europe corresponds to approximately 45 % of the amount of sludge produced (following a report from the European Commission to the European Parliament issued in 2017). Following studies, the good application of sewage provides benefits in the recycling of plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Sludge can therefore replace chemical fertilisers.
European standardization work on sludge
At standardization level, our CEN Technical Committee CEN/TC 308 on ‘characterization and management of sludge’ is developing sampling methods, physical, chemical and biological analyses required for characterizing the sludge with a view to facilitating decisions on the choice of the treatment procedures and of the utilization.
CEN/TC 308 produced a Technical Report specifically related to agricultural uses of sludge:
Characterization of sludges - Good practice for sludge utilisation in agriculture
This Technical Report describes good practice for the use of sludge in agriculture (where regulations allow). The use of all types of sludge should follow good practice to maximise benefits for the crops or soils, to minimise potential risks of environmental contamination and adverse impacts on plant, animal and human health, and to ensure sustainability, energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness.
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