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农业机械:CEN / TC 144与ISO / TC 23成功合作

发布时间: 2017-07-04 15:38:58   审校:睿智   浏览次数:
来源:https://www.cencenelec.eu/news/brief_news/Pages/TN-2017-014.aspx  

欧洲标准化委员会(CEN)与国际标准化组织(ISO)之间保持着紧密的联系,《维也纳协定》也正式认可了二者正在开展的技术合作,允许他们联合规划新的标准项目。

 在农业机械领域,CEN技术委员会CEN / TC144“农林拖拉机和农用机械”ISO / TC 23“农林拖拉机和农用机械”,主要负责拖拉机和机械标准化,涉及领域包括使用此类设备的农业、林业、园艺、园林绿化、灌溉等相关领域。

CEN / TC 144(迄今共有86项欧洲标准)发布的标准约50%是与相应的ISO / TC 23合作制定的。合作方式有两种:一种是采用两个标准化组织并行发布的标准,另一种是CEN采用现有的ISO标准。这些标准中的大多数都被列入了欧盟官方公报(OJEU),以支持欧盟关于机械2006/42 / EC指令和关于农药可持续利用的2009/128 / EC指令,因此这也是让欧洲标准与国际接轨的最佳范例。

一、保护农业环境

现行的或正在制定的欧洲标准大部分都与农业机械的安全相关,有些还会涉及环保方面,如农药的使用。举个例子,CEN和ISO目前正在制定一项关于空中喷洒系统的环境要求标准(EN ISO 16119-5)。对用于农业、林业和人类健康方面的空中固定机翼和旋转飞机平台,该项标准指定了相关设计和性能检测的要求和方式。空中喷洒用于复杂的地形或作物(如森林),并可用于大面积及时喷洒。新标准旨在利用工具最大限度地保护作物,并尽可能地减少环境污染的风险。

二、智能农业即将到来

在智能农业方面,CEN和ISO正在制定一项标准--EN ISO 18497,用于保障高度自动化农业机械(即无需人工操作的机器)的安全。

CEN / TC 144的主席纪尧姆·博奎特(Guillaume Bocquet)解释说,“只有开发出更多的智能生产方式,提高生产力和加强环境保护,才能应对未来农业面临的挑战,。关键在于机器能够实时利用大量数据(气候数据、农学数据等),自动决定优化农业生产流程:播种、施肥、加工、水分管理等。

这些机器的设计自动化程度越来越高,农民可以放心地把时间用到其他更高效益的活动。为了提高文化、商品和人的利益,prEN ISO 18497标准需要完善管理这些机器设计的可靠性和安全性。prEN ISO 18497标准在ISO国际层面上限定了高度自动化机械的安全要求,该项标准正在制定过程中,不仅体现了这一现实和需求,而且为制造商提供了安全可行的机器设计框架,同时还允许大力创新,对农民也很有帮助。

 

Machinery for agriculture: a successful partnership between CEN/TC 144 and ISO/TC 23 

CEN has a strong relationship with the ‘International Standardization Organization’ (ISO). The ongoing technical cooperation with them is officialised with the Vienna Agreement, allowing new standards projects to be jointly planned.

In the area of machinery for agriculture, CEN Technical Committee CEN/TC144 ‘Tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry’ mirroring ISO/TC 23 ‘Tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry’, has as  main activity  the standardization of tractors and machines used in agriculture and forestry as well as in gardening, landscaping, irrigation and other related areas where  such equipment is used.

 

About 50% of the standards published by CEN/TC 144 (a total of 86 European Standards until now) were developed in cooperation with the corresponding ISO/TC 23. This cooperation can work in two ways: either standards are produced by the two standardization organizations in parallel or CEN can adopt already existing ISO standards. Most of these standards are listed in the Official Journal of the European Union (OJEU), in support of the Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC and Directive 2009/128/EC on sustainable use of pesticide, and therefore are a good example of bringing together European requirements with an internationally accepted approach.

Protecting the environment in agricultural work

Most of these existing European Standards, or which are being developed, , are related to machinery-safety for agriculture. However, some also address environmental aspects such as the application of pesticides. As an example, CEN and ISO are currently developing a Standard (EN ISO 16119-5) on environmental requirements for aerial spray systems. The standard will specify requirements and the means for their verification for design and performance of aerial-fixed wing and rotary aircraft platforms for agriculture, forestry and human health. Aerial application is used in difficult terrains or crops (forests) as well as for timely application to large areas. The main aim of the new standard is to maximize efficient use of crop protection products and minimize the risk of environmental contamination.

Smart farming on the way

As regards to smart farming, CEN and ISO are working on a Standard, EN ISO 18497, for the safety of highly automated agricultural machines, i.e. machines that function without an on-board operator.

Guillaume Bocquet, the Chair of CEN/TC 144, explains that “the challenges of future farming, which are productivity and environmental preservation, will only be met by development of more and more smart means of production. The stakes lie in the ability of machines to exploit tomorrow a considerable amount of data (climatic, agronomic, etc.) in real time, in order to be able to take autonomous decisions to optimize production: seed, fertilization, processing, water management ... etc.
The machines are being designed with more and more automatic functions, hence allowing the farmer to confidently devote himself/herself to other tasks of higher benefit. The design of these machines requires a perfect management of reliability and safety in the interest of cultures, goods and people. The ongoing development of the prEN ISO 18497 standard on safety requirements for highly automated machinery at the ISO international level reflects not only this reality and this need, but also provides manufacturers with a framework for designing safe and viable machines, while at the same time allowing a strong innovation, useful to the farmer.”

 

 

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