收藏本站   设为首页
当前位置:国外标准化动态 > 中欧 > 正文

欧洲水质标准化工作不断推进 欧洲标准化循环中的水质

发布时间: 2017-05-09 11:07:01   审校:睿智   浏览次数:

能否说欧洲标准化工作造就了“欢乐的世界水日”?我们对此应该保持乐观态度,因为欧洲标准化计划将“世界水日”打造成快乐的日子。今年“世界水日”的主题为:废水是一种宝贵资源,欧洲标准化正在努力开发废水资源的应用。

欧洲标准化委员会(CEN)环境战略咨询机构(CEN/SABE)的欧洲预备标准(ENV)团队主席瓦莱里娅·迪利奥(Valeria Dulio)表示:“CEN最重要的活动之一是通过科学界、行业和政策制定者之间形成的特定关系网来鼓励……更快地将最新研制的技术纳入未来标准中,从而加速环境政策和法规的制定实施。为此,我们采取了一系列关于水领域的标准化需求建议,以提高废水中的磷回收率。”

一、为何要改善清洁水域中磷的使用?

磷排放会导致严重的环境问题,因为磷与氮结合是造成富营养化和水体质量下降的主要因素,水体营养过剩会使藻类植物疯长,从而导致水体严重缺氧,鱼类死亡。另外,磷是一种不可再生资源,在肥料、饲料和食品生产中都必不可少,且无法代替。欧洲使用的所有磷原料几乎都从国外进口而来。

改善磷的使用,减少地表水中的磷排放,以及开发磷回收能够改善水质,同时减少欧洲对进口磷酸盐的依赖。但是欧洲缺乏统一的立法框架,法律又将从污水污泥和堆肥中提取的原料视为废物,因此磷回收(P-recycling)面临重大挑战。

二、有关废水标准化工作的建议

CEN短期内采取了一系列标准化建议。其中包括首先了解分析以下内容:

l 现有标准;

l 有关磷回收的公共和私人认证计划;

l 将磷回收纳入标准所需的立法程序清单,包括循环经济方案、欧盟肥料法规、工业排放指标(如用于污水处理、水处理和焚化等的污染防治最佳可行技术BAT)。

另外,中长期需要进行标准化工作的领域,其标准需求有:

l 评估磷的生物利用度,

l 确定回收产品中的技术特性和含水量,

l 评估原材料、再生营养物质和土壤中的污染物含量。

三、未来水质标准化工作:水质连续监测

为了更好地预测未来标准化工作,未来工作的主题目前正在筹划当中。例如,CEN正在研究水质连续监测的标准化需求。水质连续监测设备的附加价值在于不间断地提供水质演化信息,从而提高决策水平。但是这需要正确控制信息链,确保从原始数据的核实、提取、传送到加工的每一个步骤,从而保证信息的连贯性和可靠性。2017年底CEN将提交关于水质连续监测的标准化战略需求建议书。

加强标准化活动的和谐统一有助于更加一致有效地实施欧洲立法。与研究团体、行业和终端用户的密切交流能够更好地了解环境需求;同时有助于更快速地采取改进措施,将研究中的优秀方法、新兴技术、和创新监测战略应用到标准化工作当中。

 

Water quality in the loop of European Standardization

Can we say ‘Happy World Water Day’ thanks to European Standardization? We can surely be optimistic; standardization intends to make this day a happy one. This year’s World Water Day theme is wastewater as a valuable resource and the contribution of standardization to the use of this resource is on the way!

“An important part of our activities at CEN is to encourage, via focused networking among the scientific community, industry, policy-makers,…a more rapid uptake of the latest technological improvements delivered by research, into the future standards supporting the environmental policies and regulation. In line with this, we have adopted a series of recommendations concerning standardization needs in the water field to support phosphorus recycling from wastewater.” Valeria Dulio, Chairman of the ENV Team from the CEN Strategic Advisory Body on Environment (SABE).

Why improve phosphorus use for cleaner waters?

Emissions of phosphorus raise major environmental issues, as phosphorus (together with nitrogen) is one of the principal substances contributing to eutrophication and surface water quality failure (the excessive richness of nutrients leads to overgrowth of algae resulting the oxygen depletion of the water body that will eventually cause the death of fish). At the same time phosphorus is a non-renewable resource, essential and non-substitutable for fertilizers and animal feeds, and so for food production. Almost all phosphorus raw material used in Europe is imported.

Improving phosphorus use, reducing releases to surface waters and developing recycling can deliver improvements in water quality and reduce European dependency on phosphate imports. There are, however, significant challenges to phosphorus-recycling known as P-recycling, including the absence of a harmonized European legislative framework, and the fact that materials derived from sewage sludge and compost are legally considered as waste.

Recommendations for standardization work on wastewater

CEN adopted a series of recommendations for standardization in the short term. This includes firstly a mapping and analysis of:

·         existing standards,

·         public and private certification schemes relevant to phosphorus-recovery,

·         and an inventory of legislative processes where integration of phosphorus-recovery into standards is needed such as the Circular Economy Package, the EU Fertilizers Regulation, the Industrial Emissions Directive (BAT for waste treatment, water treatment, incineration, etc.).

Moreover, areas have been identified where standardization work is needed in the medium/long term. Standards are needed to:

·         evaluate the bioavailability of phosphorous,

·         define the technical characteristics and water content of recycled products,

·         assess the contaminant levels from the input materials to the recycled nutrient materials and soils.

Future standardization work for water quality: continuous water monitoring

Further topics are in the pipeline in order to better anticipate future standardization work. For example, CEN is currently studying the standardization needs in continuous water quality monitoring.

The added-value of continuous water quality monitoring devices is that they provide information on the evolution of water quality in a continuous way, thus allowing enhanced decision-making.

However, this leads to the need to ensure control of the information chain, from validation of raw data, retrieval, transmission, to processing in order to have coherent and reliable information.

A position paper with recommendations on strategic standardization needs in the area of continuous water monitoring will be delivered by the end of 2017.

Stronger harmonization in standardization activities benefits the creation of a more consistent and efficient implementation of European legislation.  Moreover, a closer exchange with the research community, industry and end-users proves to be an effective way to understand the demands of those needing to fulfil environmental requirements. At the same time, it encourages a more rapid uptake of improvements, such as better methods, new technologies, and innovative monitoring strategies, flowing from research into the standards.

京ICP备09001239号
网站管理:国家标准化管理委员会标准信息中心
地址:北京海淀区马甸东路9号 邮编:100088 邮箱:info@sac.gov.cn
客服热线:010-82261056 QQ号:3433774297