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欧洲推动ICT技术标准化

发布时间: 2017-03-07 14:05:52   审校:睿智   浏览次数:

标准是推动市场准入,打开欧盟增长和提高就业的有力工具。尤其是信息通信技术(ICT)行业尤其如此,因为新业务,应用和产品的不断出现促使系统之间更多的互操作性。。因此,欧盟促进ICT标准化,从而确保ICT市场保持开放,消费者拥有选择权。

ICT标准化是一种通过自愿合作共同制定技术规范的活动,它概述了特定产品,服务或程序的商定属性

ICT规范主要用于最大限度地提高系统合作能力。在现代ICT中,设备的价值体现在它与其他设备通信的能力。这就是所谓的“网络效应”,几乎在所有的ICT领域都至关重要。统一规格确保了由不同制造商生产的产品是可互操作的,用户能够挑选或搭配不同的供应商、产品或服务。要确保市场保持开放,消费者有尽可能多的产品选择,制造商获得规模经济效益,这是必不可少的措施。

一、欧盟在ICT标准化中的作用

欧盟支持高效一致的标准化结构,从而确保提出的该标准符合欧盟政策,在全球市场具有竞争力。

欧洲标准化Regulation 1025/2012设定了法律框架,明确不同活动方在标准化系统中的调节作用。这些活动方包括欧盟委员会(European Commission)、欧洲标准化组织、产业、中小企业以及社会利益相关者。

Regulation 1025/2012第13条要求委员会确立ICT技术规范符合公共采购的要求。公共部门在购买信息技术硬件、软件和服务时,能够充分利用各种规格,衡量该领域的其他竞争者,降低锁定专有系统的风险。

l  欧盟委员会对-欧洲电信标准协会(ETSI)、欧洲标准化委员会 (CEN-)和欧洲电工标准化委员会(CENELEC)三个欧洲标准化组织给予财政支持。欧盟资助的研究和创新项目,也对其他标准制定机构的标准化工作提供研究结果。

 

二、ICT标准化中的多利益相关方平台

已建立欧洲ICT标准化多利益相关方平台(European Multi Stakeholder Platform on ICT Standardisation),其向欧盟委员会提供有关ICT标准化政策实施事宜的相关建议,包括设立法律和政策的优先次序,并确定全球ICT标准制定组织制定的规范。

该平台还对ICT标准化滚动计划(Rolling Plan on ICT standardisation)的制定和实施提供建议。

该平台的成员包括欧盟和欧洲国家的代表,欧洲和国际标准制定组织的代表,在欧洲ICT标准化领域活跃的组织,以及代表产业、中小企业、消费者和社会利益相关者的组织。

 

三、信息通信技术(ICT)标准化滚动计划

2016年ICT标准化滚动计划(3MB)/附录(67 KB)是通过ICT标准化多利益相关方平台与主要利益相关方合作的成果。其涵盖了所有可以支持标准化的活动。优先行动的目的是确保可互操作性,促进ICT在关键领域的应用。

该计划提供了国际背景下各种策略的详细内容:

 

社会的挑战:电子健康,ICT产品与服务的可接触性,网络可访问性,电子技能与电子学习,急救通讯和紧急呼叫。

数字单一市场的创新:电子采购、电子发票、卡/互联网与移动支付、可扩展商业报告语言(XBRL)和在线纠纷解决(ODR)。

可持续增长:智能电网和智能电表、智能城市、信息通信技术对环境的影响、欧洲电子长途通信业务(EETs)以及智能交通系统(ITS)。

重要因素与安全保证:云计算、(开放)数据、电子政务、电子认证和信托业务,包括电子标签、无线射频识别(RFID)、物联网(IoT)、网络与信息安全(网络安全)以及电子隐私。

 

与之前的方案相比,新的滚动计划详述了标准制定组织(SSOs)开展的所有标准化活动。该计划确保提升了欧盟标准化活动之间的一致性。

最终,该滚动计划是第一个欧洲标准化组织及其他利益相关方参与准备的标准化计划。改进过程确保了在信息通信技术领域,标准化活动与欧盟政策保持一致。

 

Standards are a powerful tool to facilitate access to markets and open the doors to growth and jobs in the EU. This is especially true in the information and communication technology (ICT) sector where the continuous emergence of new services, applications and products fuels the need for more interoperability between systems. The EU promotes ICT standardisation to make sure ICT markets remain open and consumers have choice.

ICT standardisation is the voluntary cooperation for the development of technical specifications that outlines the agreed properties for a particular product, service, or procedure.

ICT specifications are primarily used to maximise the ability for systems to work together. In modern ICT the value of a device relies on its ability to communicate with other devices. This is known as the ‘network effect’ and is important in almost all areas of ICT. Specifications ensure that products made by different manufacturers are interoperable, and that users have the chance to pick and mix between different suppliers, products or services. This is essential to ensure that markets remain open, allowing consumers to have the widest choice of products possible and giving manufacturers the benefit of economies of scale.

What is the EU's role in ICT standardisation?

The EU supports an effective and coherent standardisation framework, which ensures that standards are developed in a way that supports EU policies and competitiveness in the global market.

Regulation 1025/2012 on European standardisation sets the legal framework in which the different actors in the standardisation system can operate. These actors are the European Commission, the European standardisationorganisations, industry, small and medium-sized industries (SMEs) and societal stakeholders.

Article 13 of Regulation 1025/2012 allows the Commission to identify ICT technical specifications to be eligible for referencing in public procurement. This allows public authorities to make use of the full range of specifications when buying IT hardware, software and services, allowing for more competition in the field and reducing the risk of lock-in to proprietary systems.

The Commission financially supports the work of the three European standardisationorganisations:

·         ETSI – the European Telecommunications Standards Institute

·         CEN – the European Committee for Standardization

·         CENELEC – the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization

EU-funded research and innovation projects also make their results available to the standardisation work of several standards-setting organisations.

The European Multi Stakeholder Platform on ICT Standardisation

European Multi Stakeholder Platform on ICT Standardisation has been set up to advise the Commission on matters relating to the implementation of ICT standardisation policy, including priority-setting in support of legislation and policies, and the identification of specifications developed by global ICT standards development organisations.

The Platform also advises on the elaboration and implementation of the Rolling Plan on ICT standardisation.

Members of the platform include representatives of EU and EFTA countries, European and international standard developing bodies, organisations active in Europe in the field of ICT standardisation development, and organisations representing industry, SMEs, consumers and societal stakeholders.

Members of the Multi Stakeholders Platform on ICT Standardisation

The Rolling Plan on ICT Standardisation

The 2016 Rolling Plan on ICT Standardisation (3MB) / Addendum (67 KB) is the result of collaboration with major standardisation stakeholders through the Multi-Stakeholder Platform on ICT Standardisation. It covers all activities that can support standardisation. Priority actions aim to ensure interoperability and facilitate ICT uptake in key areas.

The Plan offers details on the international contexts for each policy:

·         Societal Challenges: eHealth, accessibility of ICT products and services, web accessibility, e-Skills and e-Learning, emergency communications and eCall.

·         Innovation for the Digital Single Market: e-Procurement, e-Invoicing, card/internet and mobile payments, eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) and Online Dispute Resolution (ODR).

·         Sustainable growth: Smart grids and smart metering, smart cities, ICT environmental impact, European Electronic Toll Service (EETS) and Intelligent Transport System (ITS).

·         Key enablers and security: Cloud computing, (Open) Data, e-government, electronic identification and trust services including e-Signatures, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Internet of Things (IoT), network and information security (cyber-security) and ePrivacy.

By contrast with the previous work programmes, the new Rolling Plan describes all the standardisation activities undertaken by Standard Setting Organisations (SSOs). This ensures an improved coherence between standardisation activities in the EU.

Finally the Rolling Plan is the first prepared with the involvement of European StandardisationOrganisations and other stakeholders. This improved process is a stronger guarantee that activities of standardisation supporting EU policies in the ICT domain will be aligned.

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