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美国ASTM及ISO制定旨在实现良好睡眠习惯的标准

发布时间: 2018-09-14 15:53:26   审校:睿智  

众所周知,睡眠不足可能会产生短期的负面影响,但是每天早上打盹打多了也会导致健康问题。首尔国立大学医学院的研究人员最近研究发现,睡眠过少与代谢综合征相关,而睡眠过多也会产生同样问题。

该研究表明,每天睡眠不足六小时或超过十小时的人更有可能患上代谢综合征,患者至少会出现以下三种症状:腰围增大、甘油三酯高、高密度脂蛋白(对人体有益的)胆固醇水平低、高血压和空腹血糖高。无论男性还是女性,每天睡眠时间超过10小时会提高代谢综合征的发病率,而每晚睡眠时间不到6小时只会增加男性的代谢综合征发病率。

获得高质量睡眠以及适度睡眠的重要性不可低估。许多美国国家标准和国际标准都对晚上的良好休息制定了相关标准。是否拥有一张支撑性好的床垫和优质床单决定了你会在夜晚酣睡还是辗转反侧。美国材料与试验协会(ASTM International)是美国国家标准协会(ANSI)的成员和经审核的指定机构,已经制定了数项美国国家标准以助于解决睡眠问题,包括:

- ASTM F1566-14,评估内装弹簧、箱型弹簧、床垫或成套床垫的标准试验方法

- ASTM D4721-12,可机洗和干洗的床罩与附属品性能的评定标准规程

- ASTM D4037-01(2013), 机织、针织或植绒床罩织物质量的标准性能规范
 

对于许多睡眠者来说,一个没有阳光、没有来自街道或邻居人造光的昏暗房间至关重要,但是窗帘上垂下来的绳索会对儿童和宠物造成危险。ANSI/WCMA A100.1-2018,美国带拉绳窗帘产品国家安全标准为包括风琴帘、百叶帘、百褶帘、卷帘等在内的室内窗帘产品提供了安全指南,并把批量生产和定制产品分开。此项标准是由窗帘制造商协会(WCMA)制定的,它是ANSI成员和经认可的标准制定组织。

虽然睡个好觉肯定会减少对健康的负面影响,但研究表明睡得太久也是有害的。国际标准化组织制定了一项国际标准,通过为日常产品的设计提供指导来解决这一问题——例如更便于使用的闹钟。从闹钟到电话再到复印机,ISO 20282-1:2006 日用产品的易操作性——第1部分:针对使用环境和用户特性的设计要求提出了让日用品界面更易于使用的要求和建议。该项标准是由ISO/TC 159技术委员会的人机交互工程学分技术委员会(SC 4)制定。负责该TC和SC的美国技术咨询组(TAG)管理单位是美国人因工程与人类工效学协会(HFES),该协会也是ANSI成员和经过认可的标准制定组织。

睡眠过多或过少都会妨碍健康,但你尽可放心,因为有标准来帮助你解决睡眠问题。

Standards Set the Scene for Good Sleep Habits

It’s well known that not getting enough sleep can have short-term negative repercussions, but hitting the snooze button multiple times every morning can lead to health consequences as well. A recent study conducted by researchers at Seoul National University College of Medicine found that getting too little sleep is associated with metabolic syndrome – and getting too much sleep can have the same effect.

The study found that individuals who slept fewer than six hours or more than ten hours each day were more likely to have metabolic syndrome, defined as having at least three of the following: elevated waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, low levels of HDL (“good”) cholesterol, hypertension, and high fasting blood sugar. Both men and women showed an increased incidence in metabolic syndrome if they slept more than ten hours daily, while only men showed this increase with less than six hours of sleep each night.

The importance of getting high quality sleep – and in the right amounts – cannot be underestimated. Many American National and international standards can contribute to a good night’s rest. Having a supportive mattress and quality bedsheets can make all the difference between a solid slumber and a night of tossing and turning. ASTM International, a member and audited designator of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), has developed several American National Standards that address these components of a good night’s sleep, including:

- ASTM F1566-14, Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Innersprings, Boxsprings, Mattresses, or Mattress Sets

- ASTM D4721-12, Standard Practice for Evaluation of the Performance of Machine Washable and Drycleanable Bedcoverings and Accessories

-ASTM D4037-01(2013), Standard Performance Specification for Woven, Knitted, or Flocked Bedspread Fabrics

Having a dark room free of sunlight or artificial light from streetlights or neighbors is critical for many sleepers, but cords hanging from window coverings can be hazardous for children and pets. ANSI/WCMA A100.1-2018, American National Standard for Safety of Corded Window Covering Products, provides guidelines for the safety of all interior window covering products, including cellular shades, horizontal blinds, pleated shades, rollup style blinds, and more, distributed as stock or custom products. This standard was developed by the Window Covering Manufacturers Association (WCMA), an ANSI member and accredited standards developer.

While a good night’s sleep certainly reduces negative health repercussions, the study reveals that sleeping too long can be harmful as well. An international standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization helps to solve that problem by providing guidelines for the design of everyday products – including alarm clocks – for ease of use. ISO 20282-1:2006, Ease of operation of everyday products – Part 1: Design requirements for context of use and user characteristics, provides requirements and recommendations to make the interface of everyday products easy to use, from alarm clocks to telephones to photocopying machines. This standard was developed by ISO Technical Committee (TC) 159,Ergonomics, Subcommittee (SC) 4, Ergonomics of human-system interaction. The U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) Administrator to this TC and SC is the Human Factors & Ergonomic Society, an ANSI member and accredited standards developer.

Whether slumbering too much or too little is standing in the way of good health, you can rest assured that standards are there to help solve your sleep problems.


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