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自愿性标准覆盖方方面面:从眼科光学到放射性废物

发布时间: 2018-03-14 10:59:36   审校:睿智  

为了向公众宣传标准在日常生活中的重要作用,美国国家标准协会(ANSI)发布了在全球和国家标准领域上各类标准动议简报,其中许多动议是由ANSI会员及ANSI认可的标准制定组织提出的。选择了以下两项最新标准:

一、眼科光学

并非人人都依靠处方眼镜来获得最佳的20/20视力,且大部分有关眼科光学的建议均围绕着如何在定制眼镜框和非定制眼镜框中做出选择。对于那些依赖非处方眼镜的人来说,有一项标准可以参考:ANSI Z80.31-2017 —眼科-眼科光学-非定制近视眼镜之规范,该规范为效用良好、大众可直接获得、不需持证专业配镜医生开处方的完全非定制近视眼镜规定了最低要求,换句话说,这里的眼镜就是那些可能是你从药店购得、放在床头柜上的眼镜。

美国国家标准(ANS)是由ANSI认可的标准委员会Z80 制定的。美国视力协会是视光学产业的行业协会,担任Z80的秘书一职。

二、放射性废料

放射性物质越来越广泛地应用于各种领域,包括制造业、医院研究、矿产勘探等等,因此放射性废料物的管理对公共安全来说比以往任何时候都更重要性。大部分处理或利用废料的设备均禁止处理包含放射性物质的废料,也就是说需要特殊的设备及要求。设备能否核实生产者提供的信息即放射性或混合性废料不包含在废料运输中非常重要。

ASTM D5928-18 筛选放射性废料标准规范描述如何筛选出高于环境背景水平或/和用户定义标准的、以液体、污泥或固体废料形式存在的α–, β–, 以及 γ 辐射。

这项标准是由ASTM制定,该协会是ANSI成员及得到认可的标准制定组织。

 

Voluntary Standards Cover the Spectrum: from Ophthalmic Optics to Waste Radioactivity

In an effort to communicate the vital role that standards play in daily life, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) publishes snapshots of the diverse standards initiatives undertaken in the global and national standards arena, many of which are performed by ANSI members and ANSI-accredited standards developers. Two of the latest selections follow:

Ophthalmic Optics

Not everyone depends on prescription glasses for perfect 20/20 vision, and plenty of tips abound on how to decide between custom and ready-made frames. One standard exists for those who rely on over-the-counter optics: ANSI Z80.31-2017,Ophthalmics - Ophthalmic Optics - Specifications for Ready-to-Wear Near-Vision Spectacles, which specifies the minimum requirements for complete ready-to-wear near-vision spectacles with positive power available directly to the public without the prescription of a licensed professional – in other words, the drugstore reading glasses that are probably on your nightstand.

The American National Standard (ANS) was developed by the Z80 ANSI-accredited Standards Committee.The Vision Council, a trade association for the optical industry, serves as the secretariat for this committee.

Radioactive Waste

Radioactive materials are used in an increasingly broad spectrum of sectors spanning from manufacturing, hospital research, minerals exploration, and more, so the management of radioactive waste is more essential than ever for public safety. Most facilities that dispose of or utilize waste materials are prohibited from handling waste that contains radioactive materials, which means that special facilities and requirements are needed. It’s also important that these facilities are able to verify generator-supplied information that radioactive or mixed wastes have not been included in shipments of waste materials.

ASTM D5928-18, Standard Practice for Screening of Waste for Radioactivity describes screening for α–, β–, and γ radiation above ambient background levels or user-defined criteria, or both, in liquid, sludge, or solid waste materials.

The standard was developed by ASTM International, an ANSI member and audited designator.


来源: ANSI 官网
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