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ISO/TC/285发布了由美国和肯尼亚负责的可持续烹饪技术委员会草案

发布时间: 2017-05-09 10:32:37   审校:睿智   浏览次数:

国际标准化组织(ISO)/TC285 清洁灶具和清洁烹饪解决方案技术委员会已制定两项旨在支持烹饪系统性能的委员会草案(CD),这些成果旨在提供更洁净且可持续发展的烹饪技术。健康研究显示,在欠发达国家过多炉灶油烟排放物会对人体健康造成多种影响,同时污染也跟油烟排放有密切关系。美国国家标准协会(ANSI)与肯尼亚的ISO成员机构---肯尼亚标准局合作,共同承担ISO/TC/285秘书处工作。

ISO/TC/285成立于2013年,致力于让全世界的政府,企业以及组织有机会参与到有关清洁灶具和干净烹饪方案的标准制定中,并参与到标准的实施和修订过程中。该技术委员会有四个活跃的工作组,重点研究与清洁烹饪技术相关标准的潜在发展和相关的核心文件。这些工作小组包括第一工作组:概念框架;第二工作组:实验室测试方法;第三工作组:实地测试方法;第四工作组:社会影响。

美国环保局的高级工程师Jim Jetter是第二工作组的项目负责。在乌干达国家标准署的召集人的支持下以及60位国际专家的共同努力下,Jetter先生带领小组制定了ISO/CD 19867-1,这也将不久成为国际标准草案(DIS)。

ISO/CD 19867-1《实验室统一测试方法---第一部分:一般实验室测试顺序》旨在用作实验室测量步骤,借此来确定发展中国家用于烹饪和烧水的灶具性能。它的目的就在于提供指标,以此来确定在不同控制条件下一个炉灶的性能。

ISO 19867的这一部分提供的是标准测试顺序,可以用来特定条件下不同灶具和燃料的性能。ISO 19867的制定主要为达成以下两个目标:(1)是进一步统一方法和参考数据;(2)是将这些方法和数据应用于鉴定发展中国家现有的各式不同的灶具燃料和烹饪活动。

另一个最近批准的委员会草案(CD)是ISO CD 19868,清洁灶具和干净烹饪方案。。在代理召集人Tara Ramanathan和美国Nexleaf分析中心的总监指导下,对灶具进行了现场测试方法的指导。这项国际标准将为评判烹饪系统性能提供实地测试方法。炊事系统的实地测试至关重要,用于了解使用时的性能和为影响评估提供输入数据。所有烹饪系统相关的元素,包括烹饪活动,燃料类型,灶具特点和环境条件都会影响性能。同时实地测试能进行在实验室中无法进行的炊事系统元素测量。

这项标准的制定是为了满足生产商、执行机构、研究者、政府以及其他相关主体实地测试炉灶性能的需要,目的在于:

  1. 提供量化的烹饪系统测量方法。在评判采用率,燃料消耗量,功率,排放以及耐用性上提供指导。这些测量数据可以在控制和非控制炊事测试中得出。然而,指导专为非控制炊事测试而设,而不是控制条件下的测试。
  2. 为测量室内空气污染和人体PM2.5和CO吸入量提供方法。
  3. 为实地评估提供指导,对烹饪系统性能数据和规定性能水平进行比较或者将炊事系统性能数据和反事实进行比较,即比较采用新系统前后的性能,评估采用新系统是否在性能上有所提升。
  4. ANSI除了与肯尼亚一起承担TC 285的秘书处工作外,ANSI还承担了管理ISO TC 285美国技术顾问组(TAG)的工作。它获得了由全球清洁灶具联盟提供的经济和技术支持,这是联合国基金会一部分。Sally Seitz女士担任美方秘书,Ranyee Chiang博士担任主席,任期直至2019年。

    

ISO TC 285 on Clean Cookstoves Releases Committee Drafts for Sustainable Cooking Technologies under U.S. and Kenya Leadership

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee (TC) 285Clean cookstoves and clean cooking solutions, has developed two Committee Drafts (CD) that support cooking system performance. These advancements are intended to provide cleaner sustainable cooking technologies, as health studies show that exposure to cookstove emissions, particularly in underdeveloped countries, is tied to a wide range of health effects and pollution. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) serves as the ISO TC 285 secretariat in partnership with the Kenyan member body to ISO, the Kenya Bureau of Standards.

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Formed in 2013, ISO TC 285 provides governments, industry, and organizations around the world with the opportunity to become involved in the process of designing, implementing, and updating standards related to clean cookstoves and clean cooking solutions. The TC operates with four active Working Groups (WGs) that focus on the potential development of standards and other essential documents in subject areas associated with clean cookstove technology. These groups include WG 1, Conceptual framework,WG 2, Lab testing methods, WG 3, Field testing methods, and WG 4, Social impacts.

Jim Jetter, senior research engineer at United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) serves as project leader for WG 2. Mr. Jetter, with support from the Convenor from the Uganda National Bureau of Standards, and with input from 60 international experts, leads the development of ISO/CD 19867-1 that will soon proceed to DIS (Draft International Standard).

ISO/CD 19867-1 Harmonized laboratory test protocols -- Part 1: General laboratory test sequence, is intended for use as laboratory measurement procedures to determine performance for cookstoves used primarily for cooking or water heating in the developing world. Its purpose is to provide metrics that can be used to indicate a cookstove’s performance under various controlled conditions.

This part of ISO 19867 provides a standard test sequence that can be used to compare the performance of various cookstoves and fuels under the specified conditions. ISO 19867 was developed to achieve two goals: (1) greater alignment in methodology and metrics around the world; and (2) adaptation of methodology and metrics to the wide variety of cookstove fuels and cooking practices that exist in the developing world.

Another recently approved CD is ISO CD 19868, Clean cookstoves and clean cooking solutions -- Guidance on field testing methods for cookstoves, under the direction of acting convenor Tara Ramanathan, StoveTrace program director at Nexleaf Analytics, U.S. This International Standard will provide field testing methods to evaluate cooking system performance. Field measurements of cooking systems are essential to understanding in-use performance and to provide input metrics for impact evaluations. All elements of the cooking system, such as cooking practice, fuel type, fuel quality, cookstove characteristics, and environmental conditions, affect performance, and field tests provide measurements that capture elements of the system that are infeasible to bring to the lab.

The standard, intended for manufacturers, implementing organizations, researchers, governments, or other entities that need to evaluate cookstove performance in the field, is projected to:

1) Provide quantitative measurements of cooking system performance. Guidance is provided for evaluation of adoption rates, fuel consumption, power, emissions, safety, and durability. These measurements can be obtained from uncontrolled and controlled cooking tests. However, guidance is provided for uncontrolled cooking tests, not controlled tests.

2) Provide methods for measurements of indoor air pollution and personal exposure to PM2.5 and CO.

3) Provide guidance for field assessments that compare cooking system performance metrics to defined performance levels, or to a counterfactual, which assesses if the new cooking system is improved compared to what would have been observed without the implementation of a new cooking system.

In addition to its leadership role as TC 285 secretariat with Kenya, ANSI also serves as the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) administrator to ISO TC 285, with technical and financial support from the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, part of the United Nations Foundation. Ms. Sally Seitz serves as the U.S. Secretary and Dr. Ranyee Chiang serves as the chairperson through 2019.

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